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Која инвестиција је најважнија у Граду Бијељина?
 

About the City

BIJELJINA CITY HALL


Bijeljina is an urban settlement and is the center of local government unit with city status in North-Eastern part of Republic of Srpska and B&H. Аrea of the city is 734 square kilometers and includes Semberian plain which tourns to light hills of Majevica mountain. Teritory of the City is located at the confluence of the Drina and Sava and these rivers are boundaries of the teritory of the City to regions of Mačva and Srem.

Drina and Sava are also the state border with Serbia and Croatia. The center of the City is located cca six kilometers from the border with Serbia and cca 40 kilometers from the border with Croatia. Neighboring municipalities of the City of Bijeljina are Lopare, Ugljevik and Zvornik (in Republic of Srpska) and Brčko District.

Due to its geo-political position, the City of Bijeljina is the crossroad of roads from the western part of the Republic of Srpska to Serbia, as well as from the Eastern part of the Republic of Srpska and Southern part of Bosnia and Herzegovina to the Northern Serbia, Eastern part of Croatia and, further, to the Pannonian Plain and Central Europe. Due to the fertile soil of Semberija, Bijeljina is a center of production and sale of food for whole Republic of Srpska and B&H. The most common agriculture crops are cereals and vegetables. Under Semberija is huge underground lake of thermal water, which is, for now, used in Dvorovi Spa, but there is a lot of potential to use thermal water for heating of greenhouses and producing of vegetables and flowers.

The City of Bijeljina has cca 115,000 inhabitants and, after Banja Luka, it is the second most populated city in the Republic of Srspka.

 

Archeological evidence proved that there were settlements in the region of Semberija in the period of Neolithic Vinca culture, as well as Copper and Iron Age. In the first century of the New Era, Semberija became a part of the Roman province of Panonia. Immigration of Slavic population to this region started in 7th century.

The medieval Semberija was located on the crossroads between powerful states of the time: Hungary, Serbia and Bosnia, and it was part of one of these states depending on their military successes. The town of Bijeljina was mentioned in historic documents for the first time at a later date. The oldest record of the town dates back to March 3, 1446 and today it is kept in the Dubrovnik archive.

The Turks conquered Semberija in 1529. At the beginning of the conquest, the local Christian population moved to Hungary and deeper in the European continent, so Semberija was left almost completely deserted (record dating from 1533 showed that there were only four villages with 55 households left). But in the years to come, the population increased. By sultan`s decree in 1580, the settlement of Bijeljina, then Četvrtkovište, gain a status of a small town (kasaba). Since the year 1634, town of Četvrtkovište became known as Belina. Austria took over these parts after the Great Turkish War and governed since 1716 until 1739. The Austrian government was succeeded by Turkish occupation again and it lasted until Berlin congress in 1878 when Bosnia and Herzegovina was awarded to Austria-Hungaria. The Turkish occupation was disrupted only once, in the year of 1809, when Bijeljina was liberated for a short period during the rise under Karadjordje, famous leader of the Serb`s rise against Ottomans. Shortly before the end of Turkish occupation, Bijeljina was the largest town of the Sanjak – with 6.074 inhabitants in 1864.

Along with the Austrian administration in Semberija came European cultural influences. This was also a period of a strong economic development. 

After the World War I, Bijeljina and Semberija became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later Kingdom of Yugoslavia). After the World War II, it was part of Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia until it's disolution and the civil war in Bosnia and Herzegovina when Bijeljina became one of the most important urban centers of Republic of Srpska and Semberija become one of the most important economic regions in Republic of Srpska.

Composition of population in Semberija  was determined by location between major states, catholic and orthodox Christianity and the fact that for a long time it was occupied by the Ottoman Empire. Migrations were frequent, depending on change of governance, but parts of population stayed and lived here where their built their churches, mosques, synagogues and other temples, side by side. One of the oldest spiritual centers and oldest building on the territory of the City of Bijeljina is orthodox monastery Tavna with church dedicated to the Holy Trinity. Building of the monastery started in 14th century, but it gained it`s final form in the 16th century. The very first mosques were built at the beginning of the Turkish conquest, and the first catholic churches during the Austrian governance.
Lately, Bijeljina became center of the Orthodox Diocese of Zvornik –
Tuzla. In center of Bijeljina the new Orthodox Catedrale was built, as well as several monasteries and smaller churches. There are also Islamic, Catholic and Slovak Evangelist communities in Bijeljina.

There are very few buildings in Bijeljina that could prove its long and rich history, for the reason of frequent wars and devastation they brought so often. Except for just a few buildings dating back to Turkish period (Orthodox St. George Church, finished in 1872, Atik mosque and building of Konak, built in 1876 - today's Museum of Semberija) most of the buildings that are considered old have been built during the Austro-Hungarian governance and Kingdom of Yugoslavia.